Countries as per government forms

Countries as per government forms

Name Constitutional form Head of state
Basis of executive legitimacy
Afghanistan Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Albania Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Algeria Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Andorra Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Angola Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Argentina Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Armenia Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Australia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Austria Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Azerbaijan Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Bahamas, The Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Bahrain Constitutional monarchy Executive
Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
Bangladesh Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Barbados Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Belarus Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Belgium Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Belize Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Benin Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Bhutan Constitutional monarchy Executive
Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
Bolivia Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Botswana Republic Executive
Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
Brazil Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Brunei Absolute monarchy Executive
All authority vested in absolute monarch
Bulgaria Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Burkina Faso Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Burundi Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Cambodia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Cameroon Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Canada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Cape Verde Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Central African Republic Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Chad Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Chile Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
China, People’s Republic of Republic Ceremonial
Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement[note 1]
Colombia Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Comoros Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Congo, Republic of the Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Costa Rica Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Côte d’Ivoire Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Croatia Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Cuba Republic Executive
Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
Cyprus Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Czech Republic Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Denmark Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Djibouti Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Dominica Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Dominican Republic Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
East Timor Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Ecuador Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Egypt Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
El Salvador Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Equatorial Guinea Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Eritrea Republic Executive
Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
Estonia Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Eswatini Absolute monarchy Executive
All authority vested in absolute monarch
Ethiopia Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Federated States of Micronesia Republic Executive
Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
Fiji Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Finland Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
France Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Gabon Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Gambia, The Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Georgia Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Germany Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Ghana Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Greece Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Grenada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Guatemala Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Guinea Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Guinea-Bissau Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Guyana Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Haiti Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Honduras Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Hungary Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Iceland Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
India Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Indonesia Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Iran Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Iraq Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Ireland Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Israel Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Italy Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Jamaica Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Japan Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Jordan Constitutional monarchy Executive
Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
Kazakhstan Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Kenya Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Kiribati Republic Executive
Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
Korea, North Republic Executive
Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
Korea, South Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Kuwait Constitutional monarchy Executive
Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
Kyrgyzstan Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Laos Republic Executive
Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
Latvia Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Lebanon Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Lesotho Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Liberia Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Libya Provisional n/a
No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
Liechtenstein Constitutional monarchy Executive
Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
Lithuania Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Luxembourg Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Madagascar Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Malawi Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Malaysia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Maldives Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Mali Provisional n/a
No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
Malta Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Marshall Islands Republic Executive
Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
Mauritania Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Mauritius Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Mexico Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Moldova Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Monaco Constitutional monarchy Executive
Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
Mongolia Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Montenegro Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Morocco Constitutional monarchy Executive
Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
Mozambique Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Myanmar Provisional n/a
No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
Namibia Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Nauru Republic Executive
Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
Nepal Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Netherlands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
New Zealand Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Nicaragua Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Niger Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Nigeria Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
North Macedonia Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Norway Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Oman Absolute monarchy Executive
All authority vested in absolute monarch
Pakistan Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Palau Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Palestine Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Panama Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Papua New Guinea Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Paraguay Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Peru Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Philippines Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Poland Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Portugal Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Qatar Absolute monarchy Executive
All authority vested in absolute monarch
Romania Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Russia Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Rwanda Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Saint Lucia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Samoa Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
San Marino Republic Executive
Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
São Tomé and Príncipe Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Saudi Arabia Absolute monarchy Executive
All authority vested in absolute monarch
Senegal Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Serbia Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Seychelles Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Sierra Leone Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Singapore Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Slovakia Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Slovenia Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Solomon Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Somalia Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
South Africa Republic Executive
Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
South Sudan Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Spain Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Sri Lanka Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Sudan Provisional n/a
No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
Suriname Republic Executive
Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
Sweden Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Switzerland Republic Executive
Presidency is elected by legislature; ministry may be, or not be, subject to parliamentary confidence
Syria Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Tajikistan Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Tanzania Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Thailand Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Togo Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Tonga Constitutional monarchy Executive
Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
Trinidad and Tobago Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Tunisia Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Turkey Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Turkmenistan Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Tuvalu Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Uganda Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Ukraine Republic Executive
Presidency independent of legislature; ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
United Arab Emirates Constitutional monarchy Executive
Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
United States Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Uruguay Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Uzbekistan Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Vanuatu Republic Ceremonial
Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Vatican City Absolute monarchy Executive
All authority vested in absolute monarch
Venezuela Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Vietnam Republic Executive
Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
Yemen Provisional n/a
No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
Zambia Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature
Zimbabwe Republic Executive
Presidency is independent of legislature

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_system_of_government